In order to work in Japan, status of resident (it is sometimes called a visa.) is required. There are four different types of status of residence.
1) Status of residence linked to certain types of jobs
This is a status linked to certain types of jobs, such as "Specialist in Humanities / International Services", gSkilled Laborh and gEngineerh, and allows a foreign national to work in Japan. If a foreign national changes his or her job, a change of status of residence is required.
2) Status of residence linked to status
This is a status of residence linked to a foreign national called "Long Term Resident" or "Spouse or Child of Japanese National". Many foreign nationals of Japanese ancestry have this type of status of residence. Those who have this status of residence can engage in any job.
3) Status of residence for designated activities
Technical interns are permitted to work under status of residence of designated activities.
4) Permission for engaging in an activity outside the scope permitted
Even if a foreign national has a status of residence, such as gComing to Japan to Studyh, gSchool Attendanceh or gShort Stayh, which does not permit him or her to work in Japan, specific work such as a part-time job within a certain period is permitted as gEngaging in an Activity Outside the Scope Permittedh.
In contrast, for a foreign national who does not have a status of residence,
no work is permitted. However, in reality, there are many foreign nationals
who are working in Japan without a status of residence. The rights of these
workers are also granted. Additionally, when a foreign national is taking
legal action to acquire special permission for residence or refugee recognition,
some considerations to protect his or her survival can be provided.